DAHSL: Developing Academic Health Sciences Libraries


a collaboration to create the 21st century academic health sciences library…

Design Guidance for Libraries, from WBDG

by WBDG Staff, Last updated: 05-26-2010, HERE.


The primary goal of effective library design and space planning is that the facility must respond to the needs of its service population. Once the needs of its service population are determined, the library building must include flexibility in the design of its interior and exterior spaces and elements in order for the library to effectively address the immediate and future needs of its design population.

Since the late 1970s, advanced technologies and alternative methods of how libraries deliver services, i.e., distance learning, electronic media, continue to develop rapidly. Before the late 1970s, housing print media was the main function of a library. Today, Internet access, electronic media, computer technology, and other forms of modern-day advancements have had a profound effect on the function and design of libraries. As a result, library design must take into account all of the issues that may affect its use in the future. Incorporating flexibility and adaptability in the design, planning, and construction of libraries is essential in order for the library to serve the immediate and future needs of its community.

The first step in the design of any library is a written building program that outlines the library’s space needs. An effective program must include input from librarians and library staff who have hands-on experience with the function of a library, its space needs, and the needs of its service population. A general rule of thumb is that the program should project the space needs of the library for 20 years. A library building consultant can also help to prepare the building program. Library design is most effective if the program is developed before beginning the schematic design phase.  Read entire story HERE.


Filed under: Physical Plant, ,

Planning Your Library Makeover: Small Budget, Big Impact Ideas

Julia Crawford, LEED AP, Library Designer

In recent years most libraries throughout the country have shared a common experience: their popularity has increased while their operating and capital improvement budgets have decreased. Libraries today provide essential services such as access to the Internet, media, computers, classes and information not available anywhere else – at least not without paying a fee or buying a cup of coffee. Children, teenagers and adults rely on libraries more than ever before for their learning, research, crafting and gaming needs. With their increasing popularity, many libraries could benefit from an appearance overhaul to meet the changing needs and expectations of their visitors. What are some big impact ideas that can be accomplished on small budgets during challenging times?

Many older libraries feel and look their age and even younger libraries appear older than they are due to the high rise in usage and lack of maintenance resources. Libraries often suffer from peeling wall paint, stained flooring, missing ceiling tiles, old mismatched chairs and oversized study tables that dominate the floor space. Revitalizing the largest surfaces in a space, such as the floors and ceilings, typically results in the greatest visual impact. Consider replacing the old carpet and installing new ceiling tiles in the existing ceiling grid. If replacing the floors and ceilings is not within your budget, repainting the walls a crisp clean neutral color to get rid of the outdated color may be a more feasible undertaking. Display artwork by local artists, add plantings, and revive old but sturdy wooden chairs with a fresh new stain color. Save money (and the environment) by buying used instead of new. Major bookstores that go out of business offer steep discounts on their stylish tables, chairs, display units and even light fixtures that could be used in the transformation of a library space. Read the rest of this entry »

Filed under: Physical Plant, Renovating, ,

Trends and Challenges identified after re-reading Logan’s 2010 Library Space article

Health sciences libraries building survey, 1999–2009, by Logan Ludwig, PhD, AHIP, FMLA;

J Med Libr Assoc. 2010 April; 98(2): 105–134. doi: 10.3163/1536-5050.98.2.004.PMCID: PMC2859257


  • Flexibility
  • Cafés
  • Information/learning commons
  • Single service desk
  • Conference rooms
  • Compact shelving
  • Artwork
  • 24/7 access
  • Wireless connectivity everywhere
  • Specialty functions: …providing space for specialty functions such as videoconferencing, a history of health and medicine room (with fireplace), a reading pavilion for special events such as research day poster sessions, and open reserve reading rooms.


  • rapid technological changes affecting teaching, learning, and research; changes in teaching methodologies
  • sustainability
  • decreasing rates of financial support; skyrocketing prices
  • poorly sited buildings
  • access for people with disabilities
  • replacing mechanical and electrical equipment, or correcting other structural deficiencies.
  • Noise, cleaning, plumbing, heating and ventilation/soundproofing
  • Zoning for quiet and silent study areas and use of white noise
  • Choosing colors that hide dust and dirt
  • maintaining parallel collections and systems, digital and paper
  • reconstructing the traditional concept of the “library as a place” to the “institution’s center for information
  • retooling space for concentration, collaboration, contemplation, communication, and socialization
  • clearer operational vision of the library as the information nexus of the institution and not merely as a physical location

Bottom line: New construction and renovation will continue because what goes on inside libraries now is different than what was planned to go on inside of them when they were built, just as what goes on inside of them today will be different than what goes on inside them tomorrow.

Filed under: New Libraries, Physical Plant, ,

Recent posts to “Designing Better Libraries”

I  often find good ideas and project descriptions in DBL and thought I would share these with you on the chance that you don’t follow it!

Service Design Expert Comments On Library

Idea Lab In The Library

The “Thinking” In Design Thinking

Flip This Library

Introducing Design Thinking To Librarians

More found  here:  http://dbl.lishost.org/blog/

Filed under: New Libraries, Physical Plant, user experience,

Interactions Special Issue on Design Thinking, from DBL

This issue is about a new intellectualism of design - one that embraces discourse, dialogue, systems thinking, and the larger role of designers in shaping culture.

If you have yet to discover interactions magazine (yes – small “i”), then the current issue is must reading for you – and I think you’ll become a regular subscriber. Describing itself as a magazine about “experiences, people and technology”, interactions is good regular reading for anyone interested in learning more about the design professions. The current issue for March/April 2010 (v.17 n.) is a special issue that features several articles about design thinking.

In prefacing issue, co-editors Richard Anderson and Jon Kolko write:

Popular discussion of “design thinking” has reached a point of frenzy. Unfortunately, there is often little depth to the discussion, and for many, the topic remains elusive and vague. While each issue of interactions has included articles about or reflecting the application of design thinking, this issue addresses the topic a bit more directly.

The goal of the issue is to offer greater in depth discussion about design thinking to engage us in thinking about what it is and what it can offer.

Articles in this issue cover topics such as what it means to have design literacy, improving relationships between design teams and business teams, and several other articles focus on interaction design and design research. The issue features several well recognized thought leaders in design, such as Roger Martin and Don Norman. My favorite article is the issue is titled “Design Thinking in Stereo” and it does a compare and contrast number on the design thinking philosophies of Roger Martin and Tim Brown, using information found in the newest books authored by these two prominent design thinkers. I find the two discuss similar ideas using different approaches and examples. For example, Brown describes design thinking as the three “I’s”, Ideate, Inspire and Implement. Martin uses his “knowledge funnel” (mystery, heuristic, algorithm) to explain the business cycle and how it can lead to exploitation and failure, and how design thinkers can better achieve an “explore and exploit” cycle. Since I enjoy reading the works of both, this was a worthwhile article.

I think you’ll find the articles about design and design thinking to be worth your time. If an inspiration hits you while reading any of the articles, please share it here.

Posted by StevenB on April 15th, 2010

Filed under: Physical Plant, user experience, ,

At U Rochester Miner Library IS the Heart!

I had received this article from Julie last fall and failed to post it…so sorry!

The Heart of the Medical Center–Miner’s leaders envision the technology, the space and the resources to maintain a great library in the digital age.

by Michael Wentzel

Slideshow of Miner Library – then and now, narrated by Julia Sollenberger

When Randy Rosier, M.D., Ph.D., was a student at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry in the 1970s, he spent most of his time outside classes and laboratories in the Edward G. Miner Library. He foraged in the stacks. He searched for pertinent journals and reports. He studied.

“Everyone spent most of their time at Miner. There was some socializing, but Miner was meant to be a quiet place and everyone was trying to keep it quiet because most people were trying to study and read,” said Rosier (M ’78, Ph.D ’79), now a professor of orthopaedics at the Medical Center.

The Miner Library of the 1970s was a terrain that had not really changed since the School of Medicine and Dentistry began in 1925. Archival photographs of the library illustrate the solitude of study and research, even when another person is seated a few inches away. The 1987 renovation that transformed the original lobby of Strong Memorial Hospital into Miner’s handsome reading room did not alter the library’s concentrated quiet environment oriented to books and journals where most medical students and other library visitors worked on their own.

“Think of what the world was like in 1987,” said Julia Sollenberger, associate vice president and director of Medical Center libraries and technologies. “There were no electronic journals. There was no easy Internet access. There were no laptops using wireless signals. There was no collaborative learning. There was no food or drink in our library.”

Today, medical students, researchers and physicians get online access through Miner Library to journals, databases and up-to-date diagnostic information from anywhere in the Medical Center or from their homes, offices or a patient’s hospital room. Laptop computers have replaced stacks of books on library tables and desks. Students watch videos of grand rounds on their computers, and sometimes listen to music through ear buds as they study. They also work in pairs or groups, discussing research or class assignments in open areas of the library. Visitors to Miner often eat a snack or a meal in the library. A soda vending machine has a prominent place. Read the rest of this entry »

Filed under: Administrative Issues, Physical Plant, ,

12 Major Trends in Library Design

By Thomas Sens, AIA, LEED AP — Building Design & Construction, 12/1/2009 12:00:00 AM

Many academic planners assumed that the coming of the Internet would lead to the decline of the library as we know it. To the contrary, many academic libraries have experienced significantly increased patron use in recent years.

One reason for this phenomenon is that today’s college students have heightened expectations and demands for academic libraries based on new approaches to learning. While the Internet can provide 24/7 access to information, it can also isolate learners. In contrast, the new academic library model provides a forum for students to collaborate, enjoy fellowship, engage in healthy debate, create and challenge ideas, and experience learning and discovery in a multitude of meaningful ways. The following 12 trends define how the library has evolved to maintain its essential position within the academic landscape.

1 Envision the library as place.

As Geoffrey Freeman noted in The Library as Place: Rethinking Roles, Rethinking Space, academic libraries are no longer simply a location to collect and organize print resources. They have become an integral part of a university’s learning culture and academics.

Today’s libraries serve four key functions, in addition to their traditional role of housing printed materials.

First, they are a locus for collaboration. As pedagogy shifts and learning becomes more team oriented and less individualistic, there is a new demand for collaboration space for students. Having a place to come together is critical to student success and the full utilization of the library as a learning space. Spaces where students can openly discuss and debate without having to keep their voices down are the new norm.

Second, while providing collaborative space is critical, there is also a need for individual, contemplative space—not the long library tables of the past, but rather a variety of spaces to suit the individual needs and learning styles of today’s students. Private, traditional study carrels suit some students, while comfortable lounge furniture is ideal for others. A blend of formal and informal spaces can create environments where all students can have their needs met. Of course, sound control is critical to the coexistence of lively, sometimes loud, areas with these more quiet spaces.

The third function of libraries is to provide a home for services, such as writing, communication, and tutoring centers, advanced lab spaces, and other specialty spaces.

And last, libraries must continue to provide both traditional research and technical services while also providing the latest in computer technology and associated technology support services.

2 Invite students and other stakeholders to the table.

Students should be invited to participate early in the planning process. Their input can help the library planning committee understand students’ needs for today and tomorrow, while opening the way for potentially innovative ideas to surface.

Town hall-style meetings, student focus groups, and student representation on advisory councils are three proven ways to bring them into the planning process. For example, when Georgia Tech decided to renovate its library, so-called “student affinity focus groups” helped solidify a list of desired characteristics that informed every space, ranging from the café to the theater space. As a result, the new Georgia Tech library integrated current student needs with a vision for the future.

However, students aren’t the only library users who should be consulted. Be sure to bring the following user groups into the discussion:

  • Library staff are an obvious group to include. They are familiar not only with the library’s everyday workings but also with new trends and technologies that the library might benefit from. And don’t overlook the “other” members of the library staff. A student worker who staffs the front desk might have valuable insights into how the whole staff could be more efficient in their work.

  • Faculty involvement is necessary, to help the planning group understand how professors utilize space for classes, as well as how they encourage students to use library resources for projects and study.

  • Student activities groups can benefit from the library as an excellent place for their headquarters or meeting areas. Bring such groups into the planning process early and allow them to express their needs and desires.

  • IT personnel are crucial to involve, because technology is becoming more integrated into the everyday workings of the academic library. Involving IT personnel from the start will also afford the planning committee the opportunity to learn about exciting new information technologies that might benefit the project.

3 Make collaboration a must.

Working and learning in isolation is no longer an option. Collaboration has changed nearly every facet of pedagogy, and therefore every aspect of university design, including library design. Where in the past teaching was focused on the transfer of knowledge from professor to student, today’s students learn by accessing knowledge and exploring new ideas among their peers. Professors assist in the process and encourage students to seek out answers for themselves, but clearly the paradigm has shifted: the “sage on the stage” has become the “guide on the side.”

This collaborative approach to learning and teaching parallels the rapid expansion of information, the depth and breadth of which requires collaboration between individuals with different areas and perhaps levels of expertise. The most efficient library and learning spaces embrace and facilitate this shift. Designing for collaboration allows more productive academic work to take place.

4 See that technology drives the bus.

Library spaces should be infused with appropriate technology. Every space in a university library should be informed by technology. From providing more power outlets for laptop users to installing complex 3D simulators, library spaces must be planned with appropriate technological amenities in mind. These may include:

  • Wireless Internet and printing access

  • Readily accessible public computers with basic software and Internet connections

  • Distance learning classrooms that provide videoconferencing capabilities and electronic flip charts to share information both graphically and electronically

  • Practice presentation rooms equipped with projection systems and conference tables

  • Advanced computing centers with the latest video, graphics, and science software

  • Lockers with built-in outlets for charging personal devices such as cell phones and laptops

  • 3D visualization spaces such as Fakespace or CAVE, which provide realistically simulated situations that allow students to interact in virtual environments

5 Plan for change.

Tomorrow should inform what you do today. Libraries being built today must also look to the future. The best way to do that is to maximize flexibility in spaces and infrastructure. Building core infrastructure, such as vertical circulation, natural lighting, and HVAC, to support future renovation ensures a smoother transition as new needs surface.

Remember, too, that equipment specified early in the process may need to be replaced with newer, better models as the project nears completion. Consider using just-in-time equipment delivery to help overcome this problem, especially for key pieces of technology such as computers, projectors, and AV systems.

Short-term flexibility is also important. Movable furniture and temporary wall partitions serve not only the long-term function of space but also short-term needs for flexible work environments. When students are allowed to reconfigure their work environment, they will find ways to create the most conducive environment for collaboration and optimal learning.

6 Use the library to attract and retain top students.

The library is an important selling point for the university. Today, prospective students are often customers, placing high demands on the universities they are considering attending. The library can be a strong selling point for prospective students, especially the very top high school seniors that many colleges and universities are competing for.

The library can also reinforce the university’s brand and thereby help attract and retain students. There are opportunities throughout a library to convey the university’s goals and mission through graphics and environmental branding. The library should become a physical manifestation of the university’s philosophies.

7 Optimize spaces between spaces.

Consider circulation zones as functional, integral places. Some of the most successful and well-used spaces in a library can grow from so-called “spaces between spaces.” For example, a corridor can become a gallery for student or faculty art exhibits. Widening a corridor outside study rooms and providing seating can create a student gathering space. Unused wall space near an entrance can become a bulletin board for student messages. Converting unused areas into spaces that encourage interaction can bring the environment to life and provide additional opportunities for learning and collaboration.

8 Consolidate emerging specialty spaces.

Academic libraries are becoming hubs for specialty spaces. Services that used to be scattered across the campus can become readily available to students when relocated to the library. Some examples of such specialty spaces:

  • Tutoring centers

  • Writing centers

  • Group study rooms

  • Presentation rooms

  • Seminar rooms and classrooms

  • Distance learning rooms with access to video conferencing software

  • Cafés and light dining venues

  • Student and faculty lounges

  • Radio stations or podcast facilities

  • Art galleries

9 Take advantage of the commons.

The commons has become the heart and soul of the academic library. It may be referred to as an “information commons,” a “learning commons,” an “intellectual commons,” an “electronic commons,” or an “e-commons.” Whatever its name, the commons model has become a blend of computer technology services and classical library reference and research resources. It serves as a hub for students to gather, exchange ideas, collaborate, and utilize multiple technologies.

Today’s commons break many of the old rules of library behavior. In the commons area, nobody hushes students who want to talk, food and drink is allowed, collaborative behavior is encouraged, and cafés and vending machines are de rigueur. Many information commons operate 24/7.

10 Rethink library programming.

Understanding the way a library functions is critical to success. In the past programming for libraries usually involved a formula to estimate necessary square footage as stacks grew. Today, such calculations are not as critical. Determining the best way to allocate and organize library space is a puzzle that requires many considerations:

  • The first floor is prime real estate. Reserve this space for more public functions such as the commons, group study areas, collaboration zones, and library help and circulation areas.

  • Uses for academic programs often work better on upper floors of the building, away from public zones and prime areas.

  • Use the basement for archives and stacks in most cases. Archives and stacks may be able to utilize compact shelving systems that are better suited to slab-on-grade conditions due to their concentrated weights.

  • Consider what kind of security is needed for 24/7 spaces versus area that are only open during “regular” library hours. This may inform how to zone the library with respect to security.

  • Keeping floor plans open and spacious with a logical workflow is critical to successful function of the library.

11 Design for environmental sustainability.

Going green can have a positive impact on your budget. With proper environmental design, the overall life cycle cost of the building can be decreased through use of efficient systems and products.

More to the point, green buildings—notably green libraries—can be a drawing card for students. Library patrons like to see their universities take an interest in issues that are important to them. Whenever possible, use green techniques to visually impact the library; display characteristics of sustainable architecture that make students aware of the efforts their university is making in support of creating a healthy, sustainable learning environment.

Areas where sustainability can have immediately apparent impacts on library design include recycled, renewable, and sustainable materials, renewable energy (PVs, wind turbines), rainwater harvesting cisterns, efficient plumbing fixtures, daylighting systems, and natural ventilation.

12 Get creative with funding.

Virtually all U.S. higher education institutions are struggling with funding, so planning for a new academic library requires stretching dollars as effectively as possible. For that reason, it’s important to lay out exactly what the physical demands of the future library will be so that the available dollars are used toward creating a functional, forward-looking space.

On most campuses, libraries are unique in that they are usually interdepartmental and therefore cannot obtain funding via study-related grants. Bringing new tenants into the library and creating specialty spaces for them can be an effective way to tap new and more varied funding sources. For example, including science centers or presentation spaces for the business school could bring in funding from these sometimes wealthier departments. For a library that BHDP Architecture designed, the café was funded by the university’s housing, dining, and guest services department.

Seeking donor-funded spaces like laboratories or writing/tutoring centers can also augment funding and allow for innovative technologies that the typical library budget might not provide for.

The message is clear: If you want your library project to become a reality, you’ve got to be creative in finding the funds to build it.

These trends were identified through numerous discussions with library deans, directors, staff and most importantly, library patrons. Discuss them early on in the library planning process, while debating the future vision, mission, and purpose to ensure a library design that accommodates the learner of today and tomorrow.

Author Information
Thomas Sens, AIA, LEED AP, is a principal with BHDP Architecture, Cincinnati. He was assisted in the writing of this article by Alexis Weitner.

See post here: http://www.bdcnetwork.com/article/440251-12_Major_Trends_in_Library_Design-full.php

Filed under: New Libraries, Physical Plant, user experience,

How Many Linear Feet of Shelving Should We Plan For?

Below is a compilation of responses:  Thanks, Colleagues!!!

Hi Jacque,

At FIU we’ve got 3,300 linear feet – but it was inherited and we don’t need it.  About half is filled with ‘gifts’ we were forced to take.  With fewer stacks, I wouldn’t have had to take them. So there’s a caution in oversizing, eh?

In reality, we figured that one double-sided range of 144 linear feet (48 shelves) would last us about 6 years or more before de-acquisitioning for older materials.  That’s buying 150 print books a year (all required curriculum texts, and the recommended curriculum texts that are not in e-format) for the Med 01 and Med 02 classes.  Everything else, of course, is in E-format.

Figuring that we are not a retrospective research library and would cull older textbooks after 5-8 years, two double-sided ranges would last 15-20 years.  By then, everything in biomedicine will be in E-format. Only a few key required textbooks might be needed in print for back-up for when someone pulls the cord out of the wall.  I don’t know if that all makes sense.  But I’ll be monitoring the results from a Lazy-Boy with the built-in refrigerator and three position stick-shift reclining seat.

David W. Boilard
Director, Medical Library
Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine – GL 324
Florida International University
11200 SW 8th St.
Miami, FL 33199
(305) 348-0643 phone
(305) 348-0631 fax

Hi Jacque,

I had the same question, but went with my same #, since we planned to go electronic, and it’s worked just fine.

And in case you need it, MLA Guide to Managing Health Care Libraries has a great chapter on space planning. Got it? If not, I’d be glad to loan. I could mail it, bring it to AAHSL, if you’re going, or fax you the chapter.

The right information is good medicine.
Jane Bridges, ML, AHIP
Associate Director – Savannah Campus
Health Sciences Library
Mercer University School of Medicine
Memorial University Medical Center
P.O. Box 23089 / 4700 Waters Ave.
Savannah, GA   31404
(912) 350-8124, fax (912) 350-8685


Hi Jacque,

In our interim blg. at Hofstra we managed to include in the plan 210 linear feet of stacks. However, it was required that they be located in a consolidated area by the front desk that can be locked when the library is not staffed so that the rest of the library can be open 24/7.  We will see how well that will work.  There was no space allocated for print journals.  The interim bldg. is expected to be occupied for about 4 years.


Debra Rand
Asst. Dean and Director, Health Science Libraries
Hofstra University School of Medicine in partnership with North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System
Library Director, Long Island Jewish Medical Center
New Hyde Park, NY 11040

Dear Jacque,

We have just completed our planning for the new building. We calculated that we will need 300 linear feet of stacks. With the idea that as titles become available electronically we will be removing the titles from the shelves and that the print collection will shrink as time goes on. But to make some folks here happy, we planned for 4 ranges at waist height of shelving for our planned 700 print titles. We also planned for 20 print journals to be housed in a special print journals shelving. Again this was planned to make certain stakeholders happy. We also planned for lockable shelving for our prized textbooks that are on reserve. Thus making the space a 24/7 space should the need arise. We are in the final stages of working with the electrical engineers to drill the floor boxes for power and data based on our final furniture plans. We plan on moving into our new space in June 2010.

See you all in Boston soon.


Nadine Dexter, M.L.S., AHIP
Director – Harriet F. Ginsburg Health Sciences Library
Director Medical Informatics
University of Central Florida
College of Medicine
12201 Research Parkway
Orlando, FL 32816-0116
407-823-1856 FAX



Filed under: Physical Plant, ,

JD’s Visit to the University of Colorado Denver HSL

UCD CollageGary Freiburger and I were fortunate to attend a gathering of librarians from the 4 Corners region, a tradition begun by Rachael Anderson a number of years ago. This year we met at the University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Library in Aurora. Our gracious host was our (formerly) own Jerry Perry! I took a ton of pictures and they are posted HERE.

Guiding principles behind the library’s design:

  • Natural light
  • Beautiful Colorado (brought inside)
  • Library faculty have windowed private offices; staff, substantial cubicles with direct and indirect natural light

Things that got my attention:

  1. Evidence of the above 3 was present
  2. Large faculty and staff offices and cubicles
  3. Spaciousness all around
  4. High, large windows and gorgeous views
  5. 5 patios! (wipes everywhere)
  6. Colors were very Colorado!
  7. Lots of study rooms and other collaborative space (get #s)
  8. Wonderful re-use of beautiful old furniture (Stickley and ?)
  9. JP’s patio veggie starter garden
  10. Permanent art and plenty of space for periodic displays of arts, see: http://hslibrary.ucdenver.edu/on-display/#PERMANENTexhibit Humanescence by Rae Douglass
  11. Lots of interesting public art on campus
  12. Spacious and functional IT staff work and storage space
  13. Plenty of space on campus and in the library for student hangout and collaboration

Filed under: Physical Plant, ,

Managing The Higher Ed User Experience

from Designing Better Libraries

A better library experience in an academic institution would hopefully be part of a more holistic and superior experience designed to provide students with an overall learning experience. That experience would be memorable, different and would encourage students, if asked, to indicate they had received a superior educational experience. But if the experts at Bain and Company are right “80% of organizations believe they deliver a superior customer experience but only 8% of their customers agree.” Not good.

So we all need to do a better job of creating an environment in which our community members – many more than just 8% – believed they had a great experience at our institutions. According to Robert Sevier, writing in University Business, great experiences don’t just happen. There has to be intent. A superior customer experience has to be designed or managed as Sevier likes to put it. In his article “Managing the Experience” Sevier shares ideas on how organizations can move from just letting experiences happen to actively designing them….

Read entire post here.

Filed under: Issues and Challenges, Physical Plant, , ,



Library Planning

New Medical Schools and/or Libraries

Useful or Fun Websites